Open Access Original Research Article

The Nutrient, Mineral and Anti-Nutrient Studies of Two Indigenous South African Spices

A. M. Asowata-Ayodele, G. A. Otunola, A. J. Afolayan

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i230198

The two South African spices named Lippia javanica (Izinziniba) and Foeniculum vulgare (Imbambosi) were studied for its proximate principles, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients properties. The experiment shows that L. javanica had higher figure in its lipids, fibres and carbohydrates contents. This implies that L. javanica may help the body to maintain an internal distention for proper peristaltic movement of the intestinal tract than F. vulgare will do. While, the protein, ash, moisture contents were more in F. vulgare, this may be the reason, more elemental composition were observed in it because the level of ash, moisture and protein contents determines its minerals or inorganic components. Elements such as Nitrogen (N), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg) and Sodium (Na) were observed to be more to mentioned few, the Ca/P levels of both plants was observed to be more than 0.5 which is the minimum ratio required for favourable calcium absorption in the intestine for bone formation. Likewise both plants shows no significant differences in its anti-nutrients levels such as the phytate, oxalate and tannin contents, but L. javanica had more of Vitamin A and E levels, compared to F. vulgare with better Vitamin C, Cyanide and Saponin contents. In general, spices have been reported to contribute to the average requirement for different nutrients. Polyphenols such as tannins have anticancer properties, so beverages such as green tea that contain large amount of these compounds might also be good for maintenance of human health despite its anti-nutrient properties. Comparatively, L. javanica has a better nutrient composition than F. vulgare.

Open Access Original Research Article

Viability and in vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 29V in Local Honey

Ulrich Landry Kamdem Bemmo, Chancel Hector Momo Kenfack, Jean Marcel Bindzi, Raoul Borkeum Barry, François Zambou Ngoufack

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i230199

The conservation of probiotic products requires low temperatures and suitable equipment that are less available in developing countries. The challenge today is to find a local food matrix that can also carry probiotics (microorganisms with benefits for consumers) in the gastro-intestinal tract. The study mainly focus in the current research was to study the use of honey as a food matrix to carry probiotics in treating the cardiovascular disease, hypercholestreolemia. Thus, this study aimed to assess the viability of Lactobacillus plantarum 29V and its in vivo hypocholesterolemic properties when contained in honey. The strain L. plantarum 29V was added in pasteurized honey and was studied its viability in honey and its impact on the physicochemical parameters of honey.¶

For in vivo studies, 0.5 mL of the pasteurized honey containing approximately 108 CFU/mL of L. plantarum 29V were administered to rats fed on a cholesterol-enriched diet (control diet+ pure cholesterol solution (0.04 g/mL) per day per rat) using a feeding syringe; the treatment lasted 4 weeks. Serum lipids were analyzed during the experiment. The results have shown that the probiotic strain L. plantarum 29V can survive in honey for 28 days without affecting the honey’s qualities. Even present in honey, this strain continues to lower serum total cholesterol, (VLDL +LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides levels of hypercholesterolemic rats. In addition, HDL-cholesterol levels significantly increased, and the atherosclerosis index was significantly lowered. The present study revealed that honey could be used as a food matrix to carry the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 29V strain very well into the gastro-intestinal tract. Hence, a probiotic formulation made of pasteurized honey and L. plantarum 29V would be used to treat or prevent hypercholesterolemia if these effects are confirmed in Human beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Interactive Effects of Different Levels of Lead and Mercury on Nitrogen Fixation of Some Diazotrophs

Kenechukwu U. Aroh, Justina U. Udensi

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i230200

Researchers have studied the effects of addition of metal elements in combination with nitrogen fixing organisms as inoculants on the plants (growth) predominantly in legumes, however there is a major gap because responses and effects of these proposed micronutrients on the nitrogen fixation activity of these microbes both free living and symbiotic remains sketchy at best. Therefore, the effect of supplementation of lead and Mercury (bioaugmentation) on the nitrogen fixation potential of two (2) diazotrophs was evaluated in this study.

Aims: To evaluate the interactive effects of different levels of Lead and Mercury on Nitrogen fixation of both Rhizobium and Xanthobactersppin-vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample organisms where collected from Groundnut rhizospheric soil of a farm in Cross River state, Nigeria. The microorganism isolation and nitrogen fixation analysis was further carried out at MacCliff General services Laboratory, Owerri, Nigeria for a duration of 3 months.

Study Design:  The interactive plots serve to show the effect of one variable (lead) on the value of mercury (the other) and is derived by selecting high and low values for lead (Pb) and entering them into the equation along with the range of values for Mercury (Hg). The values of independent variables (lead and mercury levels) used in the plots were selected by observing the highest concentration (+1) and lowest concentration (-1) values which are able to support nitrogen fixation independently in Rhizobium and Xanthobacter.

Methodology: The soil samples were collected from groundnut rhizosphere at a 20 cm depth using sterile soil corer (sterilized with 95% ethanol) and matured Groundnut plants were uprooted with care. From these samples, both Rhizobium and Xanthobacterspp were isolated. The isolated organisms were re-vitalized in Jensen’s nitrogen free broth and standardized to 0.5 McFarland standards. To determine nitrogen fixation, the broth cultures were examined for nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and amino nitrogen (Amino-N) levels after ten days of the experiment under continuous airflow using the Jensen’s nitrogen free broth containing the metal salts, Mercury (II) chloride HgCl2 and Lead (II) acetate trihydratePb (CH3COO)2.3H2O). Nitrate nitrogen and amino Nitrogen was obtained using cataldo and ninhydrins methods respectively. The data obtained was made in triplicates and reported as mean values. Interactive effect plots and statistical analysis were done using Minitab 17 software at 5% level of significance (p<0.05).

Results: The main effect plots illustrate that to maximize nitrogen fixation in Xanthobacterspthrough the utilization of the selected metals as micronutrient, we should use lead at 6.25 mg/L and mercury at 25mg/L yielding 0.508 mg/L for nitrogen fixation response. The plot also suggests that if lead metals are used at a higher concentration than stated nitrogen fixation will decline. On the interaction plots, the slopes indicate that an interference or antagonistic interaction effect (crossed lines) exist between lead and mercury in the nitrogen fixation activity of Xanthobacter. The R-squared adjusted value suggests that 70.87% of the variations in nitrogen fixation response is explained by the interaction of lead and mercury, hence the model likely fits the data. However, the P-value was not significant at 0.102. For Rhizobium sp. mercury also has a higher fixation magnitude than Lead but relatively at 0.554 mg/L. However, the interaction plot showed parallel lines indicating that there was no interaction effect. Therefore, one can say that the relationship between lead and nitrogen fixation does not depend on the concentration of mercury and vice versa. The model was also statistically insignificant at 0.981.

Conclusion: Interactive effect only occurred in the nitrogen fixation of Xanthobactersp. This raises a need for further study combination of metal elements which could be utilized to stimulate nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium production in Diazotrophs both in the field and in-vitro.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characteristics of Scutellonema bradys Populations Responsible for Yam Dry Rot in Côte d’Ivoire

Yadom Y. F. R. Kouakou, Kouamé Daniel Kra, Toualy Marie Noël Yeyeh, Hortense Atta Diallo

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 43-59
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i230201

The great diversity of agroecological factors that cover the yam production area in Côte d’Ivoire can be a source of morphological variability within Scutellonema bradys species, responsible for yam dry rot. This study aims at identifying the morphological group(s) of S. bradys which infect(s) yam Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata. Two hundred ten yam tubers for sale in food markets in the Autonomous District of Abidjan were sampled from traders. After extraction and identification, a morphological characterization was carried out on S. bradys populations using morphological descriptors. Yam tubers sampled from food markets came from three agroecological zones namely dry tropical savannah, semi-deciduous dense forest and transitional forest areas. Morphometric variables and ratios used individually did not help identify morphological groups. Principal component analysis, however, performed with the most discriminating variables and ratios revealed three morphological groups named "large", "medium" and "small" in males and females and confirmed by the agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Each group consisted of a rate greater than 48% of individuals from a given agroecological zone. Three morphological groups of S. bradys are associated with yam dry rot in Côte d’Ivoire. Pathogenic and molecular characterization of the morphological groups would be necessary with a view to researching control methods.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutics Activities of Amazonian Plant Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae): A Review

Milene Barbosa da Silva, Márcia Pinheiro da Silva, José Dobles Dias dos Reis Júnior, Carlos Antônio Couto Lima, Anderson de Oliveira Souza

Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i230197

Several compounds extracted from medicinal plants and their active ingredients can relieve symptoms and even cure diseases, although they occasionally have adverse effects. The knowledge of their properties has been transmitted over the centuries within and among human communities. Himatanthus sucuuba is an Amazon plant that has its value attributed to the different herbal impacts popularly reported. This review presents significant biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidepressant, immunoregulatory, cytotoxic, and genotoxic. Thus, provides a synopsis of the literature exploring the extracts of H. sucuuba to the Amazon region that could efficiently prevent pathologies associated with leishmaniosis, infection for bacteria or fungus, depression, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity or genotoxicity.