Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Advances in Biology &amp; Biotechnology (ISSN:&nbsp;2394-1081)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JABB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Biology &amp; Biotechnology’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 2394-1081 Enhancing Cucurbita pepo Growth, Productivity, and Fruit Quality using Bacilli Strains and Cyanobacteria Treatments <p>Two successful field experiments were carried out during 2020and 2021 growing seasons to evaluate the effect of bio fertilizers;<em> Bacillus amyloliquifaciens</em> (BA), <em>Bacillus megaterium</em> (BM) and cyanobacteria inoculation on the vegetative growth, growth parameters and plant chemical content of Cucurbita pepo (Squash) crop. The study of mixed inoculation with <em>both Bacillus strains</em>, and <em>cyanobacteria </em>was found to improve vegetative growth, plant chemical contents and positive microbial activity in the soil Rhizosphere in comparison to un-inoculated plants. Soil available nutrients (N and K) increased significantly with <em>BA</em> and <em>BM</em> combined with cyanobacteria while available phosphorus gave most increase with <em>BM.</em></p> Ashmawi Elsayed Ashmawi Amira M El-Emshaty Gehan Mohamed Salem Mona Fekry Ghazal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 1 11 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i1130248 Mortality of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to Spinetoram Toxic Bait in the Laboratory <p>Fruit flies (<em>Diptera: Tephritidae</em>) cause significant losses during the production and marketing of horticultural products. Brazilian growers usually adopt full-coverage insecticide spraying to control fruit flies, but toxic bait is a more strategic technique, because reach efficacy and the target surface is the foliage and branches. We provide information regarding the toxicity of spinetoram bait to two fruit fly species in the laboratory as an alternative to organophosphates and the specific spinosad formulation. We tested toxic baits in the laboratory, using commercial hydrolysed corn protein (10% v/v) plus 90 g, 120 g, 150 g and 180 g dilutions of spinetoram 250 WG (commercial product/1,000 litres of water). All toxic baits were compared with an untreated control (only protein) for the adults of females and males of <em>Anastrepha obliqua</em> (Macquart, 1835) and <em>Ceratitis capitata </em>(Wiedemann, 1824) up to 30 hours of exposure. Dry food for adults was included in all dilutions (5% w/v). In addition, we tested the residual effect of toxic baits applied to the leaves of mandarin seedlings. We used the same treatments of the earlier bioassay without dry food, collecting treated leaves and exposing them to <em>C. capitata </em>(medfly) females for 24 hours in the laboratory. Leaves were collected 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after application. Overall, medfly adults were more susceptible to spinetoram baits than <em>A. obliqua</em>. All toxic baits resulted in 100% <em>C. capitata </em>mortality 24 hours after initial exposure, and the toxic bait at 150 g/1,000 L of water resulted in the maximum mortality (96%) in <em>A. obliqua</em>. Except for 90 g of spinetoram bait at 30 days after application, all spinetoram bait concentrations resulted in significantly, more dead <em>C. capitata</em> females than the control over all tested periods in the residual bioassay. At 30 days after application, spinetoram baits at 120 g, 150 g and 180 g resulted in 85%, 87% and 86% mortality in <em>C. capitata</em>, respectively. Spinetoram toxic baits have proven promising for long-term fruit fly management.</p> Adalton Raga Ester Marques de Sousa Léo Rodrigo Ferreira Louzeiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 12 21 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i1130249 Efficacy of Amendments in TPH Removal during Bioremediation of Agricultural Crude Oil-polluted Soil <p>This study identified the efficacy of different amendments as biostimulants in bioremediation. This experiment was carried out for 4 weeks in the laboratory. One kilogram of pristine soil was spiked with one liter of crude oil in earthen pots, to each pot 10 grams of amendments were added and mixed thoroughly. The amendments used were poultry dropping (C-PD), cow dung (D-CD), N.P.K (E), and a control (A and B) setup undergoing natural attenuation. The microcosms’ initial physicochemical characteristics such as total organic nitrogen, pH, temperature, total organic carbon, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The microbial enumeration was done for total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB). The molecular characterization of the pristine soil (A) and contaminated soil (B) was also done using the shotgun analysis. The THB of A and B was 1.3 x 10<sup>7</sup> and 2.1 x 10<sup>2</sup> while the HUB was 1.63 x 10<sup>5</sup> and 1.1 x 10<sup>1</sup>on day 1 respectively. The THB of treatments during bioremediation at week 2 was 1.75 x 108, 1.89 x 108, 1.5 x 108 and 2.2 x 108 while at week 4, the THB was 1.90 x 108, 2.1 x 108, 2.20 x 108 and 2.25 x 108 while the HUB at week 2 was 1.20 x 10<sup>5</sup>, 3.0 x 10<sup>5</sup>, 2.5 x 10<sup>5</sup> and 1.98 x 10<sup>5</sup> while at week 4, the HUB was 2.0 x 10<sup>6</sup>, 2.19 x 10<sup>6</sup>, 2.46 x 10<sup>6</sup> and 2.1 x 10<sup>6 </sup>for B, PD, CD ,and N.P.K respectively. The molecular characterization of A and B showed there was a higher microbial diversity in the contaminated soil than in the pristine soil. This study has shown that cow dung is more effective in the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbon, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon in crude oil-contaminated soil.</p> Barisiale Baranu Chimezie Ogugbue Gideon Okpokwasilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-18 2021-12-18 22 30 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i1130250 Effects of Chlorides of Lead and Some Transition Metals on the Kinetics of Crude Peroxidase from Watermelon Seeds <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study investigates the effect of chlorides of lead and some transition metals on the kinetics of crude peroxidase from watermelon seeds</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong>&nbsp; <em>In vitro</em> enzyme assay.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria between April 2021 and June 2021</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The kinetics of crude peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of varying concentrations of different chloride salts and hydrogen peroxidase was determined spectrophotometrically at 655nm. The assay mixture contained 2.3 mL of sodium phosphate buffer of pH 7.0, 0.1 mL of the crude enzyme from the seeds of watermelon, 0.2 mL of varying concentration of the respective chloride salts, 0.2 mL of 0.02 mM TMB, and 0.2 mL of 2 mM hydrogen peroxidase added last to start the reaction.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results showed that except for nickel chloride, chloride salts of Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Hg<sup>2+</sup>, and Fe<sup>2+</sup> had peroxidase activating effects. Mercury chloride and lead chloride proportionately increased the enzyme activity within a salt concentration range of 1.5 and 3 mM. In comparison, ferric chloride had an optimum concentration of 2.5 mM for peroxidase activation; mercury chloride had the highest peroxidase activation effect compared with chlorides of Pb, Ni, and Fe.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These findings are of great importance to industries in understanding the mechanism of action of peroxidase from the seeds of watermelon, especially as the search for cheap and alternative sources of peroxidases continues.</p> O. M. Iniaghe O. S. Adeyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 31 36 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i1130251 Microbial Profile and Detection of Bio-catalytic Enzymes from Bacterial Derivatives in Selected Agrowastes <p>The bio-catalytic enzyme potential of microbial consortium in selected agrowastes was evaluated in this study. Bio-wastes possess renewable resources of biomass and represents potentially-valuable sources due to their low cost, environmental friendly and sustainable nature. The isolation, enumeration and biochemistry of bacteria and fungi from agrowastes were conducted via standard microbiological techniques. Screening of agrowaste substrates for enzyme synthesis was conducted via plate assay method. Potato peels had the highest bacterial count of 3.85×10<sup>4 </sup>CFU/ml as maize husk had the highest fungal load of 6.55×10<sup>4</sup> SFU/ml while wheat shaft had the lowest fungal load of 1.5×10<sup>4 </sup>SFU/ml. <em>Acinetobacter baumanii, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium</em> were among bacterial consortium significantly enumerated. <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula glutins, Candida albicans </em>and <em>Geotrichum candidum </em>were yeasts characterized from the fermented agrowastes while <em>Aspergillus niger, A. terreus, A. flavus </em>constitute some of the mould consortium enumerated. Amylase and cellulase content of the agrowaste substrates increased after fermentation while protease and pectinase content of all the agrowastes remained unchanged after the fermentation process. <em>Acinetobacter baumanii, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis </em>and<em> G. candidum </em>were positive for amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase production. <em>Penicillium chrysogenum </em>and<em> Microsporum canis</em> were negative for the enzyme production. The findings of this study demonstrated the enzymatic-production potential of <em>Bacillus</em> species associated with agrowastes because they exhibited higher enzyme production.</p> Gladys Oluwafisayo Adenikinju Daniel Juwon Arotupin Kehinde Olusayo Awojobi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 37 50 10.9734/jabb/2021/v24i1130253